Black Kettle of southern Cheyenne

Black Kettle (bottom third from the left) and other tribal leaders meet at Camp Weld
Black Kettle was a Cheyenne Peace Chief who tried to protect his land from settlers who had begun to enter the southern plains in 1859 after the discovery of gold and silver near Pikes Peak, CO. In 1864, Col. Chivington organized a militia in Colorado to protect the residents of Denver from raiding Cheyenne and Arapaho dog soldiers. This led to the Sand Creek Massacre.

After the Sand Creek Massacre, Black Kettle moved his people to Washita, Oklahoma where they were attacked again in 1868 by the 7th Calvary led by George Armstrong Custer. Black Kettle was killed in this attack and the surviving leaders of his people surrendered to the Army and were moved to reservation in Oklahoma and the Black Hills.